Beyond Earth: The Future of Humans in Space

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Beyond Earth: The Future of Humans in Space provides a foundation for space planners and anyone interested in humankind's next great adventure - the human migration to space. World-class scholars, scientists, engineers, managers, astronauts, artists, authors, and university professors capture the questions that plague our unique circumstance: Why does space matter to us? What can we use it for? How can we get there efficiently? What will ordinary life be like in space? What will our homes be like on the Moon? On Mars? In orbit? Will we play? Will we love? Will we survive? The primary reasons for humans to go permanently to space are for the betterment of humankind and the avoidance of threats to humans on earth. Evidence to support those conclusions is provided herein. Research findings over the past decade show huge benefits to humans and to earth of exploiting the resources and capabilitie uniquely found in space. Some predictions and projections will produce paradigm shifts unimagined in 1957 when Russians and Americans began departing earth. Space Sciences technology and experience makes the next major breakout from Earth to space not only feasible but commercially profitable. This book is science, not science fiction. In the year 2006 we know that humans will live and work in space. Humans have experienced space for forty-five years. The majority of the forty professionals who authored this book have spent their working lives in the global space community. They have produced a systems approach to the “Why” and the“How the next great space adventure will occur and the challenges to overcome. Managers are already planning for translation of this English version into twelve major languages of the world.

Beyond Earth (ATWG) Foreword by Edgar Mitchell

Beyond Earth (ATWG) Preface by Bob Krone

Beyond Earth (ATWG) Acknowledgements



The stars, the planets, space and the vastness of the universe have captured the imagination of nearly everyone who has ever gazed into the night sky. In Part I we consider three dimensions of this impact.

Dr. Kenneth Cox describes the genesis and history of the Aerospace Technology Working Group, the organization that has sponsored this book; Langdon Morris explores the meanings of space as we begin the Third Millennium, and Martin Schwab compiles a marvelous collection of thoughts about space from world leaders in government, business, academia, and faith.

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 1 - The Aerospace Technology Working Group by Kenneth J. Cox

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 2 - The Meaning of Space by Langdon Morris

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 3 - View Of Global Leadership by Martin Schwab

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 4 - The Overview Effect and the Future of Humans in Space by Frank White


The many authors of this book propose, each in their own way, that the future migration of humans to space to be characterized by Jonas Salk's concept of "Survival of the Wisest."(1) While Darwin's "Survival of the Fittest" provides a brilliant scientific explanation of the evolution and survival of life on Earth, it does not account for the possibility that humans can play a positive role in evolution, as John Stewart proposes in Chapter 22; nor does Darwin's theory consider Norbert Wiener's prescription for the "The Human Use of Human Beings," (2) that technology must free humanity rather than enslave us. The 19 chapters of Part II explore these human and humane dimensions of space exploration, development, and settlement, dealing topics ranging from governance, leadership, law, collaboration, psychology, bacteria, biotechnology, education, the arts, mythology, and evolution itself. Among the many messages you'll find here, one stands out perhaps most clearly, which is that humanity now has the capabilities to create our future, but we can create for better or for worse. These chapters contain the many dimensions that we must master for us to achieve better.

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 5 - Governance for a Human Future in Space by Yehezkel Dror

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 6 - Space Law in the 21st Century... and Beyond by George S. Robinson

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 7 - Creating the First City on the Moon by Thomas F. Rogers

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 8 - Stage Three Leadership by Charles E. Smith

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 9 - Tennis Time and the Mental Clock by Howard Bloom

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 10 - Cooperative Worldwide Space Collaboration by Michael Hannon

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 11 - Evolutionary Psychology and Its Implications for Humans in Space by S. Bell and D Strongin

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 12 - Space as a Popular National Goal by David Livingston

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 13 - Harnessing Bacterial Intelligence by Eshel Ben-Jacob

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 14 - Biotech: A Near Future Revolution from Space by Lynn Harper

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 15 - Space Exploration and a New Paradigm for Education and Human Capital Development by Michael J. Wiskerchen

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 16 - Music and Arts for Humans in Space by Bob Krone

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 17 - A Code of Ethics for Humans in Space by K.T. Connor, L. Downing and B. Krone

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 18 - Children's Visions of our Future in Space by Lonnie Jones Schorer

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 19 - Sowing Inspiration for Generations of Space Adventurers by Becky Cross

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 20 - The Meaning of the Heavens to Humankind Throughout History by C Garbos and R. Garbos

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 21 - Space, Ideology and the Soul: A Personal Journey by Paul J. Werbos

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 22 - Space and Humanity's Evolution by John Stewart


The totality of existing sciences, plus new sciences that are already being created and others yet to be created, will be needed to provide the "How to ...." for the successful exploration and permanent human habitation of space. The authors of Beyond Earth are optimistic that this can be done, but they also understand that doing so will require a unique mix of research, planning, and political will. Our belief is that. When in doubt, choose optimism, then manage wisely to achieve a self-fulfilling prophecy. In Part III, 15 authors examine some of these critical technical and managerial challenges, including topics ranging from space settlements to extra-terrestrial intelligence, mission operations, spaceports, resource management, risk management, an overview of technical challenges in many fields, and the oasis in space.

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 23 - Strategic Thinking for Space Settlements: Energy from Space by Paul J. Werbos

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 24 - The Intelligence Nexus in Space Exploration: Interfaces Among Terrestrial, Artifactual and Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence by Joel D. Isaacson

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 25 - Efficient, Affordable Explorations Operations: Crew Centered Control via Operations Infrastructure by T.E. Diegelman, R.E. Eckelkamp and D.J. Korsmeyer

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 26 - The Changing Role of Spaceports by Derek Webber

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 27 - Planetary and Solar Resource Management, Biospherical Security and the New Space Adventure by E. and S. Maynard

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 28 - The Earth Observatory by Langdon Morris

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 29 - Lunar Commercial Development for Space Exploration by T.L. Matula and K.A. Loveland

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 30 - Managing Risks On The Space Frontier, The Paradox of Safety, Reliability and Risk Taking by F. Hsu and R. Duffey

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 31 - A Magnificent Challenge by Richard E. Eckelkamp

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 32 - Planning the Oasis in Space by E. B. Kiker and R.S. Kirby


We have covered a tremendous range of issues and topics in Parts I, II, and III. Now in Part IV we bring it together with four chapters that synthesize the key strategic issues for the future of humans in space, including a view of the critical role of advocacy, and alternative strategic considerations and approaches. The final chapter examines theory and action; theory, since correct theory is essential to achieving the right results, and action, since useful action is the necessary complement to a theoretical formulation.

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 33 - The Genes of Space by H.B. Lyon, B. Cross and B. Pittman

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 34 - Alternative Strategic Approaches to Space by Martin Schwab

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 35 - The Past is not Sufficient as a Prolog by Hylan B. Lyon

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Chapter 36 - Theory and Action for the Future of Humans in Space by K. Cox. B. Krone and L. Morris

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Appendix A - Research Agenda for the Future of Humans in Space

Beyond Earth (ATWG) - Appendix B - ATWG Meetings History


Interview with Bob Krone and Lawrence Downing